Smartphones, superglue, electric car, video chat. When will the wonders of new technology end? When you experience his presence so much that you never think about it again? When will something new and better come? When you forgot the original?
Despite the answer, CRISPR genetics editing techniques have not yet arrived. Ten years later Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier first incorporating their findings into CRISPR, it is still in the middle of a major scientific project and a discussion of solid principles. It continues to develop new avenues for research and promotion of archeology. It is used by scientists, and used by other scientists: psychologists, psychologists, scientists, zoologists, anthropologists. hitting.
For these researchers, some surprises remain. But the excitement of the new collection has been replaced by open space and ongoing work. Here are a few of them.
Cathie Martin, a botanist at the John Innes Center in Norwich, England, and Charles Xavier, founder of the X-Men heroes group: They both love mice.
But where Professor X’s relationship with human beings is so vast, Drs. Martin looks straight in the red and juicy style. “We were always looking for mutants, because that made us understand the role,” Drs. Martin said of his research, which focuses on plant genes and hopes to find a way to make food – especially tomatoes in its place – healthy, strong and long-lasting. permanent.
When CRISPR-Cas9 arrived, one of Dr. Martin promised to make his tomato mutant as a gift. He was a little skeptical, but, he told her, “I would like tomatoes that do not produce chlorogenic acid,” something that is thought to have health benefits; tomatoes without it have not been seen before. Dr. Martin wanted to remove what he believed to be the main genetic code and see what happened. Chlorogenic acid-free tomatoes were soon in his laboratory.
Instead of looking for a mutant, it is possible to create them now. “Getting those mutants, it works well, and it’s wonderful, because it gives us a confirmation of all these ideas we have,” Drs. Martin said.
Recently, researchers at the laboratory of Drs. Martin created a tomato plant with CRISPR which can store vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. Only one gram of the book containing 60 times is recommended daily for adults.
Understand Sickle Cell Disorder
Abnormal blood flow, which can lead to chronic pain, stroke and organ failure, affects 100,000 Americans and millions of people worldwide, mostly in Africa.
Dr. Martin explained that CRISPR can be used across a variety of dietary changes. It can remove allergens from the fruit and produce water-efficient plants.
“I’m not saying that vitamin D supplements will solve the problem of malnutrition,” he said. Martin says, “But it was a very good example. People like to have something they can rely on, and this is there. It’s not a promise. ”
Leading tests in remote areas of Africa
Christian Happi, a biologist and director of the African Center of Excellence for Genomics of Infectious Diseases in Nigeria, has used his work to create a mechanism to detect and control the spread of infectious diseases in humans through animals. Many of the existing methods to do this are expensive and inaccurate.
For example, in order to react with a polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, you would want to “go and remove RNA, have a machine that is $ 60,000 and hire a trained person,” Drs. Happi said. It is expensive or unreasonable to carry out this type of experiment in many isolated towns.
Recently, Drs. Happi and his staff used the technology CRISPR-Cas13a (a relative of CRISPR-Cas9) to identify diseases in the body by preserving the genetic structure associated with pathogens. They can process the SARS-CoV-2 virus within a few weeks of infectious disease arriving in Nigeria and produce unwanted tests on site equipment or trained professionals – just a tube for irrigation.
“If you’re talking about the future of infectious disease support, that’s what you’re saying,” Drs. Happi said. “I want my grandmother to use this in her community.”
The CRISPR diagnostic test kit works well at room temperature, is easy to use and costs about one-tenth of the standard PCR test. However, the lab Drs. Happi continues to test the validity of technology and tries to make it acceptable to leaders in the African public health system.
He described their plan as “cheaper, faster, less demanding of equipment and could be rolled out to remote parts of the continent. This will allow Africa to take over what I call its planet. “
Seek treatment for sickle cell disease
Initially there is a zinc finger nuclease.
That is a genetic editing tool developed by Gang Bao, a biochemical engineer at Rice University, who first tried to treat sickle cell disease, an inherited disease of damaged red blood cells. He took Dr. Bao more than two years of development, then zinc finger nuclease will effectively cut the sickle cell system by only about 10 percent of the time.
The next process took another two years and was a little more successful. But then, in 2013, shortly after CRISPR was successfully used to edit genetics and genetics, Drs. Bao’s team changed again.
“From the start to get the first results, CRISPR took us about a month,” Drs. Bao said. This process effectively reduces the objective process by about 60 percent of the time. It is easier to do and more effective. “It’s amazing,” she says.
The next challenge is to identify the impacts of the process. That is, how does CRISPR affect genes that are not objective? Following the animal testing process, Drs. Bao is convinced that the system will work for humans. In the year 2020 Nutrition and medicine support clinical trials, by Dr. Matthew Porteus conducts his laboratory at Stanford University, continuing. It is also hoped that CRISPR may be used to treat other hereditary diseases. At the same time, other therapies do not rely on genetic editing has been successful in sickle cell.
Dr. Bao and his lab are still trying to figure out all the second and third reasons for using CRISPR. Mana Dr. Bao is hopeful that genetic treatment for sickle cell will be available soon. When? “I think three to five more years,” he said, smiling.
Focus on the secrets of the heart
It is difficult to change one’s mind. But that is not simply because we are often stubborn and cling to our ways. The heart produces new cells more rapidly than many other body parts. Effective treatments in other parts of the body are also more difficult than in the heart.
It is also difficult to discern what is in a person’s heart. Even when designing the entire genome, there is often a section that remains in-depth for scientists and doctors (called variants that are uncertain). A patient may have a heart condition, but there is no way it can be linked to their genes. “Ị rapaara,” Dr. Joseph Wu, president of the Stanford Cardiovascular Institute. “So in our culture we have to just wait and tell the patient that we don’t know what’s going on.”
But over the past few years, Drs. Wu used CRISPR to detect the presence and absence of a ruptured vascular system in the heart cells, which was demonstrated in his laboratory containing pluripotent stem cells from the blood. By removing unique genes and examining its effects, Drs. Wu and his staff have been able see link between the DNA of an individual patient and heart disease.
It will be a long time before these diseases can be treated with CRISPR, but diagnosis is the first step. “I think this will have a huge impact on the drug industry itself,” Drs. Wu said, who said he found at least three mutations that were uncertain when he found his own genome. “What do these models mean to me?”
Sorghum is used in bread, wine and corn worldwide. But it has not yet been commercially available as wheat or corn, and, when processed, does not taste good.
Karen Massel, a biologist at the University of Queensland in Australia, saw little opportunity for improvement when she first began studying the plant in 2015. And because millions of people eat sorghum All over the world, “if you make a small change, you are in for a rude awakening. great impact, ”he said.
He and his colleagues have used CRISPR to make sorghum frost-tolerant, to keep it warm, to prolong its growth, to change its root system – “we use cell processing across wood, ”he said.
Not only can this lead to sweeter and healthier grains, but it can also make the plant more palatable resistant to changing weather, he said. But it is no small task to use CRISPR to properly edit plant cells.
“Half of the genes we’re planting, we don’t know what they’re doing,” Drs. Massel said. “The second time we try to get in there and call on God, we find that we’ve come a little deeper.” However, using CRISPR in combination with other cultural curricula, Drs. Massel is optimistic, even though he is an idiot who describes himself. It is also hoped that further improvements will lead to the purchase of processed foods from genetics, making them more accessible and well-received.
In 2012, a 6-year-old girl developed severe lymphoblastic leukemia. Chemotherapy has not been successful, and the case is too big for bone marrow transplantation. There seems to be no other option, and the girl’s doctors tell her parents to return home.
Instead, they went to the Children’s Hospital in Philadelphia, where doctors used experimental drugs called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy to stop the girl’s white blood cells from developing. Ten years later, the girl has no cancer.
Since then, Drs. Carl June, a medical professor at the University of Pennsylvania who helped develop CAR T-cell therapy, and his colleagues, including Drs. Ed Stadtmauer, a hematologist-oncologist at Penn Medicine, is working to improve it. That includes using CRISPR, which is the simplest and most accurate tool to edit T-cells outdoors. Dr. Stadtmauer, a specialist in treating various cancers of the blood and lymph nodes, states that “the decade has seen a resurgence in the treatment of these diseases; it is rewarding and inspiring. ”
Over the past few years, Drs. Stadtmauer helped with this run clinical trials In this case T-cell CRISPR-mkpụrụ receptors are involved in patients with treatment-resistant cancer. This result is guaranteed.
Dr. Stadtmauer said, “Patients with high prognosis are doing well now, and some are being treated.” He went on to examine the patients, and found that the prepared T-cells were still in the blood, ready to attack tumor cells in terms of relapse.
The real advantage is that scientists now know that assisted CRISPR treatment is possible.
“While it’s really a kind of science-y biochemistry and science, the fact is that the field is very old,” Drs. Stadtmauer said. He added that science is less interested in it than CRISPR is useful. “Every day, I see maybe 15 patients needing me,” he said. “That’s what motivates me.”
Multiple uses of CRISPR: Scientists tell everyone
Source link Multiple uses of CRISPR: Scientists tell everyone