The fight over which AI use should be outlawed in Europe

security guard in 2019 It has begun testing artificial intelligence-based polygraphs on the borders of Greece, Hungary and Latvia. A system called iBorderCtrl tried to detect signs that a person was lying to border agents by analyzing facial movements. The experiment has been funded by European Union research for nearly $5 million and has been going on for nearly 20 years. Research at Manchester Metropolitan University, UK

The trial caused controversy. Lie detectors and other technologies built to detect lies in their physical properties have been widely declared unreliable by psychologists. Soon, the iBorderCtrl also reported an error. According to media reports The lie prediction algorithm didn’t work.and the project’s own website admit The technology “can pose risks to basic human rights”.

Silent Talker, which spun off from Manchester Met this month and created the technology behind iBorderCtrl, was disbanded. But that’s not the end of the story. Lawyers, activists and lawmakers are pushing EU legislation to regulate AI. The bill would ban a system that claims to detect human deception during the migration process. Former Silent Talker executives were not allowed to comment.

Banning AI polygraphs at borders is one of thousands of amendments. AI law Officials from EU countries and members of the European Parliament are considering this. This legislation is intended to protect EU citizens. basic right, like the right to live without discrimination or the right to declare asylum. It classifies some use cases of AI as “high-risk”, some “low-risk” and bans others entirely. Lobbying activities for the revision of the AI ​​Act include human rights groups, labor unions, Companies like Google and MicrosoftWe want AI laws to distinguish between those who build general-purpose AI systems and those who deploy them for specific uses.

Last month, advocacy groups including European Digital Rights and the Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants called For a bill to ban the use of AI polygraphs that measure things like eye movement, tone of voice or facial expressions at the border. Statewatch, a civil liberty non-profit organization, analysis It warns that the AI ​​law will allow the use of systems like iBorderCtrl as written and will add to Europe’s existing “publicly funded border AI ecosystem”. The analysis shows that over the past 20 years, about half of the €341 million ($356 million) funding for using AI at borders, such as profiling migrants, has gone to private companies.

The use of AI polygraphs at borders can be used to effectively shape new immigration policies through technology, says Petra Molnar, deputy director of the nonprofit Refugee Law Lab. “You have to prove that you are a refugee, and unless you prove otherwise, you are considered a liar,” she says. “That logic underpins everything. It underpins AI polygraphs and supports more surveillance and backlash at borders.”

Molnar, an immigration lawyer, says people avoid eye contact with border or immigration officials for harmless reasons like culture, religion or trauma, but doing so is sometimes misinterpreted as a sign that a person is hiding something. She said humans often have a hard time communicating between cultures or talking to people who have been traumatized. But why do people believe machines can do better?

The fight over which AI use should be outlawed in Europe

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