What scientists know about the breakthrough risk of death

Vaccine skeptics and opponents soon caught the news that Powell was vaccinated to question the effectiveness of the vaccine after the death of former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell on Monday due to Covid-19 complications. Provided fuel to.

However, Powell’s immune system is most likely weakened by multiple myeloma, a cancer of white blood cells. Both illness and treatment can make people more susceptible to infections.

According to scientists, he is 84 years old and may be at increased risk.

Powell received a second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in February, said his longtime aide, Peggy Sifrino. He was scheduled for a booster last week, but she said she got sick before she received it.

Powell’s death is a high-profile tragedy, but scientists have emphasized that confidence in the Covid-19 vaccine, which significantly reduces the chances of serious illness or death, should not be compromised.

Dr. Paul Offit, director of the Vaccine Education Center at Philadelphia Children’s Hospital, said: “The point of vaccination is to know that the benefits clearly and clearly outweigh the risks. And we know that about this vaccine.”

Vaccines are very effective, Even for the more contagious delta variantsCurrently, it is the cause of almost all infectious diseases in the United States.Those who are completely vaccinated The chance is about 1/10 Be hospitalized 1/11 chance of dying From Covid-19, according to a recent study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

NS New York Times Analysis Of the 40 state data, fully vaccinated people were found to account for 0.2 to 6 percent of Covid-19 deaths.

Among more than 187 million fully vaccinated Americans 7,178 people diedAccording to the CDC, 85% of these deaths were in people over the age of 65.

Dr. Peter Hotez, Dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, said: “But there are certain groups that are at greater risk.”

It is clear that older people are most likely to develop severe Covid-19 since the pandemic began. In addition, the immune system is generally less robust and the immune response to the vaccine is weakened.

of One recent studyAlthough not yet reviewed by experts, researchers found that residents of Canadian care facilities with a median age of 88 had neutralizing antibody levels after vaccination, with a median age of 47. is.

Ann Claude Ginglas, Principal Investigator and Lead Author of the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Institute at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, said:

Powell was also treated for multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. Plasma cells play an important role in the immune system because they make antibodies.

What you need to know about Covid-19 booster shots

The FDA has approved booster shots for a specific group of people who received a second dose. Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine at least 6 months in advance. The group includes: Vaccinated persons over the age of 65 or living in a long-term care facility. Adults at high risk for severe Covid-19 due to underlying illness. Healthcare workers and other people whose work puts them at risk.Who has Weakened immune system Eligible for a third dose of Pfizer or Moderna 4 weeks after the second shot.

The CDC states that the conditions covered by booster shots include: High blood pressure and heart disease. Diabetes or obesity; cancer or blood disorders; weakened immunity; chronic lung, kidney or liver disease; dementia and certain disorders. Pregnant women, current and former smokers are also eligible.

The FDA has approved boosters for workers who work at high risk of being exposed to potentially infected people. According to the CDC, this group includes: Education workers; Food and agriculture workers; Manufacturing workers; Correction workers; US Postal Service workers; Public transport workers; Grocery shop workers.

Not recommended. For now, Pfizer Vaccine Recipients are advised to take Pfizer Booster Shots. Moderna and Johnson & Johnson recipients will have to wait until booster doses from these manufacturers are approved.

Yes. According to the CDC, the Covid vaccine may be given at any time, and many pharmacies allow flu vaccinations to be scheduled at the same time as boosters.

Both illnesses and treatments, such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and steroids, can make patients more susceptible to infections.

“Colin was being treated for multiple myeloma and seemed to be responding well,” said Kathy Justy, who founded the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation and met Powell at a Foundation event. Said in a statement. “Immunosuppression is a well-known side effect of cancer treatment and reminds us that we are at high risk as patients, especially over the age of 65.”

Vaccines may also be less effective in people with multiple myeloma.

“Unfortunately, the cancer itself suppresses the normal immune system,” said Dr. James Berenson, director of medicine and science at the Myeloma and Bone Cancer Institute in West Hollywood, California.

of Study published in July, Dr. Berenson and his colleagues found that only 45% of people with active multiple myeloma “reacted appropriately” after being vaccinated with Pfizer or Moderna.

On average, people who received the Pfizer vaccine had lower antibody levels than Moderna’s recipients, the researchers found. Antibody levels were also low in older patients and those who were not yet in complete remission.

It is unclear what treatment Powell received for multiple myeloma or whether he was in complete remission. But even patients in remission can have an impaired immune system, Dr. Berenson said.

“They usually, but not in all cases, usually remain immunosuppressed, even if they respond well to treatment,” said Dr. Berenson.

Eric schmidt When Christine Hauser Contribution report.

What scientists know about the breakthrough risk of death

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